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2007高考必背英语词汇讲座(P)

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商务英语词汇`y4b|k(da

1、part of, a part of

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  这两个词组后可接单,复数名词或不可数名词,名词前要有the, these, your等限定词;亦可跟代词宾格。它们都表示“部分”的意思,但在词意范围上有所不同。商务英语词汇"yt T@R

%z:i2W6V]c0  part of意为其中“一部分”,可能是整体的一半,一半以上或一半以下。例如:He is a philatelist; part of his collection is rare sets of postage stamps of the Qing Dynasty.他是一位集邮家。他藏品的一部分是罕见的套头的大清国邮票。The Chinese revolution is part of the world's proletarian revolution. 中国革命是世界无产阶级革命的一部分。

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  a part of意为其中的“一小部分”,仅指整体的一半以下,这时可用part of代替。例如:(A) Part of the textbooks have arrived.(一小)部分教科书已经到了。I read only (a) part of the story.这篇小说我仅仅看了(一小)部分。 

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G7]e*WQ8|.p8a02、permit, allow

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  这两个词都是“许可,允许”之意,用法正式;而且都表示有能力或权威去阻止的含义。

6mQ4eAKWu8C&m*O0 商务英语词汇 A7t;K6Wq

  permit意为“准许,允许”,比前者更为正式,严肃,指有权允许的一方积极、明确地从正面允许或持肯定态度。例如:We do permit our employees to gather in the hobby and sing carols on Christmas Eve. 我们确实准许雇员们于圣诞前夜在大厅里集合唱圣诞颂歌。You are indeed not sensible enough to allow your teenage son to stay out until midnight and even permit him to use the family car. 听任你十几岁的儿子在外逗留直至午夜甚至还准许他使用家里的汽车,你这样做实在是太不明智了。The distance between the two cities was in those days too great to permit of frequent contact.这两个城市的距离太远,在那时不可能有频繁的接触。In the wall of the cabin there is a hole to permit light to enter. 小屋的墙壁上有一个小洞,光线可以射进来。商务英语词汇(Ku-X Sh Y

4u`q}| Qc*h,s0  allow意为“许可,准许”,其实表达的意思是并不反对,不加阻止或客观条件的可行性,偏重“听任”,意义较消极。可用于复合结构,即allow sb./sth. to do sth.。常用词组:allow for考虑到具体情况;allow of (no delay/ no dispute)许可,承认(刻不容缓,没有争论余地)。例如:His weakened condition would not allow of his being questioned by the police.他身体虚弱,受不了警方的质询。The nurse allowed the visitors to remain beyond the hospital visiting hours, though it was not permitted.尽管医院并不允许,但这位护士还是默许探视者们过了探视时间依然留在医院。I want to get a good business or profession which allows me to get away when I want to.我想找一份我想离开时就能允许我离开的行当或职业。Being the principal of a high school, Jane's position allowed of no unseemly behavior in public.作为一座高等学府的校长,简的职位不允许她在公共场合有任何不得体的举止。 

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,}0[$]0qfW,}y03、personal, private, individual商务英语词汇'hvOEMI0?oO

R[ DAS {@Nr[0  这一组词都可译作“个人的”。 personal意为“个人的,私人的,亲自的”,着重强调属于或涉及本人,而非他人所能代表或代替的事物。例如: According to etiquette in western countries, it's good manners to avoid making personal remarks.按照西方礼仪,避免发表涉及个人的评论是礼貌的。I have something personal to discuss with you because it's related to either my own or your intimate interests.我有点私事和你商量,因为它有关你我的切身利益。What is special about the meeting is that the prime minister will make a personal appearance.此次会议与众不同之处在于首相亲自出席。Susan wondered if she could ask Anna a personal question such as the marital status.苏珊在想她能否问安娜一个诸如婚姻状况一类的私人问题。

+Xz`TM:?2W0 商务英语词汇 k*XI+x#Kw+bj CI!l

  private意为“个人的,私有的”,表示与公共的或公有的相反,也含有明确的隐私,不愿或不应公之于众的意思。例如:He has asked the secretary of the state to apply to the president for a private interview.他已要国务卿向总统提出申请,要求秘密会见。In the United States, the rich tend to send their children to private schools regardless of their expensive tuition.在美国富人们愿意让孩子上私立学校,不论其费用有多昂贵。This file is highly confidential because it contains all the private information concerning the election.这份文件高度机密,因为它包含了与选举有关的所有个人材料。

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(OY8R:fx |3\g:j0  individual意为“个体的,个人的”,区别于集体,整体或普通,明确指某类单一的,个别的人物,常用作定语。例如:She was determined to do good, not to any individual person but to a country.他决心为国家而不是为任何个人做好事。Some people claim that the individual rights are more important than the public interests as a whole.有些人声称个人利益比公众利益更重要。What I admire most is that my sister has an individual style of arranging her hair.我最羡慕姐姐的是她梳的发型很有个性。 

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)dug H-Ase04、passed, past商务英语词汇&R/O vVL

y"?Wr B po)o"t0  passed是动词pass的过去式和过去分词,当它用作分词,修饰某个名词时,有强调该名词的意味。例如:On our way home we passed through a picturesque village.在回家的路上,我们经过了一个风景如画的村子。I consider that the days passed in this way are memorable.我认为以这种方式度过的日子是值得纪念的。商务英语词汇$f1?!k:r v \&H!^w

l+D0t {1smpC0  past不能用作动词,但可以用作介词,副词,名词和形容词。作形容词时,既可放在所修饰名词的前面作定语,也可用作连系动词be的表语。例如:In the past, only men had a vote.过去只有男子才有选举权。He dashed forward, paying no attention to the bullets that whizzed past him.他冲向前去,不顾耳边飞过的枪弹。During the past few days, many visitors have flocked into the town.在过去的几天当中,许多参观者涌入城里。Those times are past.那样的时代过去了。注意:当past作形容词,其前面有定冠词时,past放在所修饰的名词之前;没有定冠词时,past放在所饰的名词之后。试比较下面的短语:for the past few months 过去的几个月during the past week 过去的一周期间for some time past过去的一段时间in times past 在过去的年代里 商务英语词汇jT}B6j

商务英语词汇G5\Xp e(@*F:e _

5、play, play with商务英语词汇Ha$K!I3U'U4Z5k

商务英语词汇5qm;oAiN"P

  play是一个多义动词。在表示“玩”的意思时,既可作不及物动词(主语一般是儿童);也可作及物动词,这时,后面通常跟乐器名词(有冠词),球类名词或者棋,牌等。例如:The children are playing on the ground.孩子们在操场上玩。She played the piano quite beautifully.她钢琴弹得棒极了。Sometimes they played bridge together.有时他们在一起打桥牌。

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u6nTG$b'Ai6s0  play with也可表示“玩”的意思。一般用于小孩和动物,指一种不自觉的“玩耍;开玩笑“的意思。用于前者时,后接具体的东西;用于后者时,后接表示人的名词。例如:The little girl is playing with her toy bus. 小姑娘在玩她的玩具汽车。It was mean of him to play with her affections.他玩弄她地感情是卑鄙的。Don't play with him, he is in a bad humor.别和他开玩笑;他情绪不好。注意:play with后接人的名词时,有时容易产生歧义。请比较下面一句的意义:They are playing with each other.他们在相互玩弄。/ 他们在相互开玩笑。/ 他们相互在一起玩。 

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6、prepare, prepare for, prepared for

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!d)B"y7ts\'r#|Y0  prepare和另两个词组都是“准备”的意思,但含义和用法有别。prepare用作及物动词,后接名词时,表示“准备;调制,配置”的意思,它亦可接带to的动词不定式(表示“准备干某事”)或接不定式复合结构(表示“为某人做某事作准备)。例如:I can't see you tonight, I shall be preparing my lessons.我今晚不能见你,我要预备功课呢。After the discussion they prepared to write an article to air their views.经过讨论,他们准备写一篇文章来提出自己的看法。The nurse is preparing the child to go to hospital.保姆正在为孩子住院作准备。商务英语词汇*t qh@3pW~

k Wb,G5Pl k!N0  prepare for和prepared for后均接名词或代词,都含有“为将来即要发生的某一行动或某种情况作准备”的意味。两者一般可以互换,不同的是prepare for是个动介型短语动词,作及物动词用,动作意味很强,可直接用作谓语;prepared for中的prepared是一个形容词,须借助动词be作表语,表示状态。例如:We were given two days to prepare for the examination.我们可以有两天的时间来准备考试。They were prepared for the worst.他们已准备好应付最坏的情况。注意:prepare for可分开来写,即prepare...for, 这时prepare是及物动词。当prepare后接表示物的名词时,prepare...for通常表示“为(某人)准备(什么)”。当prepare后接人的名词,介词for后接事物等名词时,它通常表示“培养或指导(某人)准备(什么)”。例如:We must prepare a room for our guest.我们必须为客人准备一个房间。They are preparing their child for college.他们培养孩子准备上大学。 

)g.Z1h"d*^ gl0Z6gG+w2B"K0 商务英语词汇 t$sw6Rg

7、price, cost, expense商务英语词汇O!?f#b@

商务英语词汇%{'a l0FX} ^YU

  这组词都指“价钱,花费”。price意为“价格,定价,价钱”,主要指卖主给商品定的价格,一般都高于成本(cost),也可引为做某事而付出的“代价”。例如:Labor was the first price, the original purchase money that was paid for all things.劳动是最初的价格,是人们购买一切东西所支付的最初货币。What a price she paid for saving the factory from the fire!为了使工厂不至于被火烧掉,她付出了什么样的代价啊!商务英语词汇/uG0F\ Ry]'J5B

商务英语词汇3v(A,[XgQi

  cost意为“成本,费用,价钱”,多指对要价的支付,也指产品本身的成本,即设计,生产,运输付出的所有劳动及原材料的价值总和。引申为“代价”,即付出的牺牲。常用词组:at the cost of 以...为代价;at all costs (any cost)不惜一切代价。例如:We have paid a very high cost but we have also made very great achievement.我们付出了很高的代价,但也取得了巨大的成就。He rescued the boy from drowning at the cost of his own life.他救了这孩子,使其免于被淹死,却牺牲了自己的生命。

Ki k%UU~0 商务英语词汇8zDO k8z._4vRz8D

  expense意为“费用,花费,开支”,常指为某物实际支付的金额总数,也可指各种花费,尤指金钱,也可包括时间,精力等。例如:They built a runway in a shorter time and at less expense than originally planned.他们修筑了一条跑道,所用的时间比原计划短,花的钱也少些。The board of the directors decided to cut down expenses by combining the three offices into one.董事会决定把三个办公室合并成一个,以节省开支。In order to meet the expenses for her studies, Kessy had to do extra work at night.为了支付学习费用,凯西只好晚上去加班工作。 商务英语词汇"@5e n-o-W)u4G\p2C5dy

商务英语词汇+@HrQ9f/s4A

8、pretty, fairly, rather

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M:`$B7L2s*DB0  这组词都有“相当地”之意。pretty意为“相当,非常”,是个非正式的用法,表示程度相当高。常用短语有:pretty well, pretty soon, pretty certain。例如:People in the city can hardly imagine what a pretty rough life the countrymen live.生活在城里的人难以想象农村人的生活有多苦。We can safely draw a conclusion from her facial expression that she is pretty satisfied with the election result.从她面部表情我们可以有把握地得出这样的结论:她对选举结果相当满意。商务英语词汇C u8W(wPu7K&\

:^ NJQ2bF*j0  fairly意为“相当,还算”,语气最弱,表示适度、尚可,不能与too及形容词,副词的比较级连用。还可以讲作“公正地,明白地”之意。常用短语:be fairly beside oneself几乎疯了;fairly and squarely光明正大地。例如:The children were fairly beside themselves with joy as they caught sight of their parents. 孩子们见到父母简直欣喜若狂。In our school most of the teachers were fairly young except for a few older teachers.除了几位老教师外,在我校大多数是很年轻的教师。

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3Kth!M+|u0  rather意为“相当,颇”,用来含蓄地表达某种想法,以避免直截了当的表达方式,但其所表示的程度实际上却颇高。rather通常修饰表示否定的词或本身为否定的意义,而fairly则修饰即表示肯定意义的词或本身为肯定的意义。常用短语:rather too...稍微太...一点;rather than:与其...不would rather...than宁愿。例如:I have got a fairly good memory for names, but I'm rather bad on dates.我记名字记得相当牢,可是记日期却不行。Before then, air pollution may have become an international, rather than national problem.在那以前,空气污染与其说是国家问题,倒不如说是一个国际问题。商务英语词汇h$w\#q-e2Axh

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