'首页', 'news' => '资讯', 'uchblog' => 'uch日志', 'bloglist' => '日志列表', 'blogdetail' => '日志查看页', 'bbs' => '论坛', 'top' => '排行榜', 'hottop' => '热度排行榜', 'uchimage' => 'uch相册', 'imagelist' => '相册列表', 'imagedetail' => '图片查看', 'tobbs' => '进入论坛', 'favorite' => '收藏', 'site_map' => '站点地图', 'site_link' => '友情链接', 'pushed_to_the_feed' => '加入事件', 'user_info' => '用户信息', 'yes'=>'是', 'no'=>'否', 'list' => '列表', 'category' => '信息列表', 'year' => '年', 'month' => '月', 'edit' => '编辑', 'delete' => '删除', 'insert' => '插入大图', 'insertsmall' => '插入缩略图', 'slice' => '裁切缩略图', 'insert_attachments' => '插入附件', 'login' => '登录站点', 'logout' => '退出', 'welcome' => '您好', 'announcement' => '站点公告', 'site_reg' => '注册', 'poll'=>'投票', 'new'=>'全新', 'subject'=>'标题', 'dateline'=>'发布时间', 'location'=>'所在地', 'file_size' => '文件大小', 'link_url'=>'网址', 'tag' => '标签', 'email' => '常用E-Mail', 'document_type_error'=>'文件类型错误,允许的图片文件后缀是', 'next_page' => '下一页', 'pre_page' => '上一页', 'pannel_contribution' =>'投稿', 'hour' => '小时', 'minute' => '分钟', 'second' => '秒', 'now' => '现在', 'before' => '前', 'mars' => '火星', 'visitor' => '网友', 'from_the_original_note' => '的原贴:', //function/item.func.php 'not_allowed_to_belong_to_the_following_tag' => '对不起,本站不允许使用以下TAG', //function/common.func.php 'the_page_can_be_updated_immediately_hits' => '点击可以立即更新本页面', 'close' => '关闭', //include/space_nospace.inc.php 'user_group' => '用户组', 'see_more' => '查看更多', 'view' => '查看', 'reply' => '评论', //include/space_template.inc.php 'score' => '评分', 'search' => '搜索', 'more' => '更多', 'manage' => '管理', 'photo_upload' => '上传图片', 'last_reply' => '最后评论', 'thread' => '帖子', //include/bbsimport.inc.php 'bbsimport_self' => '您只能指定自己的论坛主题进行导入', 'block_image'=>'(图)', //spacelist.php 'visitors' => '访客', //common.func.php 'quote' => '引用', 'rate_pre' => '评', 'fen' => '分', 'admin_login' => '管理员点击此处登录', 'site_close' => '站点临时关闭,请稍后再访问', 'tag_match' => '§|№|☆|★|○|●|◎|◇|◆|□|■|△|▲|※|→|←|↑|↓|〓|#|&|@|\|︿|_| ̄|〖|〗|【|】|(|)|〔|〕|{|}|.|’|‘|”|“|》|《|〉|〈|〕|〔|‘|’|“|”|々|~|‖|∶|”|’|‘|||¨|ˇ|ˉ|·|-|…|!|?|:|;|,|、|。| | |\~|\.|\!|\@|\#|\\\$|\%|\^|\&|\*|\(|\)|\+|\=|\{|\}|\||\[|\]|\\|\:|\;|\"|\'|\<|\,|\>|\?|\/|\s', //modelview.php 'details' => '详细信息', //modelpost.php 'photo_title' => '标题图片', 'check_username' => '发布者', 'online_contribution' => '在线投稿', 'system_catid' => '系统分类', 'content' => '内容', 'common_reset' => '重置', 'common_submit' => '提交保存', 'verification_code' => '验证码', 'changge_verification_code' => '换一张', //m.php 'check_order' => '选择排序方式', 'model_dateline_desc' => '按发布时间 从晚到早', 'model_dateline_asc' => '按发布时间 从早到晚', 'model_viewnum_desc' => '按查看数 从多到少', 'model_viewnum_asc' => '按查看数 从少到多', 'model_rates_desc' => '按评分 从高到低', 'model_rates_asc' => '按评分 从低到高', 'model_grade_desc' => '按审核等级 从高到低', 'model_grade_asc' => '按审核等级 从低到高', 'classification' => '分类', 'fromdate_0' => '发布时间: 从', 'fromdate_1' => '到', 'login_succeed' => '操作完成,您已经成功登录站点系统了', 'logout_succeed' => '操作完成,您已经成功退出站点系统了', //source/do_lostpasswd.php 'get_passwd_subject' => '取回密码邮件', 'get_passwd_message' => '您只需在提交请求后的三天之内,通过点击下面的链接重置您的密码:
\\1
(如果上面不是链接形式,请将地址手工粘贴到浏览器地址栏再访问)
上面的页面打开后,输入新的密码后提交,之后您即可使用新的密码登录了。', //viewthread.php 'view_thread' => '查看帖子', //function/news.func.php 'comment_elevator' => '高层电梯:', 'comment_floor_hide' => '部分楼层隐藏中...', 'comment_floor_up_title' => '上翻39层', 'comment_floor_up' => '上', 'comment_floor_down_title' => '下翻39层', 'comment_floor_down' => '下', 'comment_floor_total' => '本楼共有', 'comment_floor_total_2' => '层!请乘坐电梯浏览,每次显示39层,顶层和后9层保持不变。', 'comment_floor_repeat' => '已经隐藏重复盖楼', 'comment_floor_view_repeat' => '点击展开', //api/uc.php 'credit' => '积分', 'credit_unit' => '个' ); ?> 浅谈英语句子中的省略 - 商务英语词汇

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浅谈英语句子中的省略

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热度0票  浏览91次 时间:2007年8月04日 12:59

({5fa7}8F A6?!xg0一 省略句的概说

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*L'_~c{E(@I{0省略句是我们在学习英语过程中能不断体验收获和趣味的一种惯用手法,无论是说话还是写作,都要求生动活泼,简明扼要。按照语法的分析, 有时句子应具备的成分出于修辞上的需要, 会缺少一个或几个句子语法结构所必要的语言成分,但在一定语境中可独立存在,仍能表达其意义完整并发挥交流功能的句子则被称为省略句。省略的结果不仅能使句子结构更加精练,而且可起到连接上下文并使相邻词语达到强调的作用。
O8qY2i vjx%wya0英语省略句用词简练, 表意简练, 往往收到一定的修饰效果, 句中的某些成分因上下文已提供了充分明确信息或前文已出现过的某些成分,为了避免不必要的重复,也不会引起言语上的误解,并可突出中心词,从而使整文紧密连接的一种修辞手法,其语法现象就是省略。举个例子:Glad to see you. 这是个简单句,主语I和谓语am可以省略。省略的形式从单词、短语到分句等都可省略, 而且各有其一定的衔接关系。

Oz!jyZh0 商务英语词汇Rl9rz]U

二 省略句的分类

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qrE'D|],A0(一)句中成分的省略商务英语词汇a r1\ qZ1q

3z jk y7} u _f@3q7H01. 主语的省略商务英语词汇(Qgc)b{ w!l
Beg your pardon. (我)请你原谅。(Beg前省略了主语I)
O(z6^!L~o | D&q0Come on! 得了吧(你)!(Come前省略了主语You)商务英语词汇,E{Y+dh-g
2. 谓语的省略商务英语词汇oLi$_z1nY%y]
John is a lawyer,his wife (is) a cleaner. 商务英语词汇)\K8e(Q o{7t
Some of us study Japanese,others (study) English. 商务英语词汇 aTQ(gwf_
3. 表语的省略
c7M,{y.bU%m)Mt0She was a lover of sports as she had been in her youth..(had been后面省略了a lover of sports)商务英语词汇1}'e*Y5_ R;\xp;GW_ic
4. 宾语的省略商务英语词汇 P3lX-r"L%m
Let’s do the cases. I’ll read and you’ll type.(read和 type后面省略了宾语cases)商务英语词汇(So,b t[.B#O!h6]x3C
5. 定语的省略
,P5w;Kzg.Q9b W0I spent part of the money, and the rest I gave.(the rest后面省略了定语of the money)商务英语词汇E U ON }\}i(U0l#^
6. 状语的省略商务英语词汇?1ORn)a-u {1R.PJ
She wasn’t cry. Strange! (Strange前面省略了状语how)
wsHT7y u}qpZ07. 词的省略商务英语词汇/}$Fs,MX{7GK
1)名词、冠词、物主代词或介词如果与前文重复时,可以省略,如:商务英语词汇N8jma7X6|H@
I like red wine better than white (wine).
h @rcMn;g-W+y0The lightning flashed and (the) thunder crashed.
R5l6h9cQw_2s1^7V0Please take good care of these flowers and (these) plants. 商务英语词汇9I7}8@^3{
We lived in Beijing and (in) Shanghai for some time.
.m}TJU0w i-^O02)重复出现的形容词,省略后边的;两个或两个以上被形容词修饰的同一名词,前边的则常被省略。商务英语词汇 B7DAQ"Usr7a
We are young boys and (young) girls.
V,L1Aml@ht'\Q0There were middle-aged (women) and elderly women to attend the meeting;
B'hAj0s1J-K08. 英语中一些固定特殊的省略结构商务英语词汇n$h1dO?A3I8s*|u
1)在回答一般疑问句的简略答语中,或回答用陈述句,祈使句表示要求、命令的简略回答中,常用Yes /No+主语+助动词,而省略主动词或其它成份,但助动词应和原句的助动词和时间概念须保持相应的一致。商务英语词汇CG&d M,x,C-Z
— Could I borrow your dictionary? 商务英语词汇Q+D{ b%^
— Yes, of course you can. (句中 could表示委婉语气,并不是过去式,因此答语用can,其后省略borrow my dictionary.)
4i|dtEz'Da-f.U0— Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow.
kj/}3C$n6V,h)Q0— I won't. (祈使句原含有未来的意味,再加上有tomorrow的限制,因此答语用 won't,其后省略forget to go you’re your birthday party tomorrow.) 商务英语词汇GP"{C)`9@
2) 同时省掉句子几个部分有时好几个句子成分都被省掉,除了对疑问句的简略回答外,也出现在反意疑问句中。如:You are a superman,aren’t you (a superman) ? 商务英语词汇x1g)J I-ms:G3Oq?a
3)在以know, forget, remember等动词结尾的简答句后的子句通常也可省略,以避免重复。
FwL)_ |_;~;?9v0— Who won the football match last night?
T8_,f;R$Ug%W0— Sorry, I don’t know (who won the football match last night.)
z%G5LP1K&YH04)在以if, when,though,as,as if 等连词引导的从句中,如从句中主要动词是be,可将主语和动词be省掉。商务英语词汇RW7c/Eo"@8]q8I
He is very good at dancing, though (he is) very old.
/d+iejCDr$b0The boy looked as if ( he were ) afraid of nothing.
6}/nb*B0R)ps05)so,nor/neither 用来表示“……也一样”时的省略结构商务英语词汇9D Aw7s7O3q6WOqK.r#RI
— I am a student.商务英语词汇'H'~[#Qg_B2f
— So am I (a student).
V0x{X%MLB+EjY0— We haven't been there.商务英语词汇;W^sL1o;L1Z0S
— Neither (Nor) have we (been there).

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e/l1GQ?v2KJ0(二)句中结构的省略

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J?4W0v?4d]01. 简单句的省略商务英语词汇lxX$R2\Rf

V"x/XuJ}LX W,mBh01)名词所有格之后的省略
~^+Hs\a9|8j)E0He is going to his uncle’s (house).
F q$vU\"Z02) 含there be结构中的省略
NqWee BYR,c0(Is there) Anything wrong?
hMNtjB03) 独立主格结构中的分词如为being或having been时的省略
z)~%wI'LJK+Q];[ hs8_0The examination (being) over, we all left the school. 商务英语词汇 T^!F.[ce:g

]!u(V r4QG04) 不定式的省略

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5b)_f9HkW5i0(1)并列的不定式
Bl.]e t2o(\0Her job is to take care of the elders and (to) wash their clothes.
x~dK8eh(K0(2)为避免重复, 作某些动词hope, want等宾语或tell, order, ask的宾补时,省略不定式短语, 只保留不定式符号to.
7[Ke1nB-]\0The child wanted to play in the street, but her mother told her not to.
K tFT/^+u2e3p7v0( 此句中 not to 后省略了和上文相重复的play in the street.) .商务英语词汇KI[2bdWP
(3)感官动词see, hear, feel, notice, hear或使役动词let, make, have,等后跟不定式作宾补时省略to.
jp)aAh0I saw the girl cross the street.
8e8\XC@%aD4T _0I had my father repair my bike. 商务英语词汇6bwL\O
注意:当感官动词与使役动词用于被动时,需恢复to的省略! 如:The girl was seen to cross the street.商务英语词汇6@/}[t e\9s:e
(4)有had better, would rather, can’t but 或Why not等句型后面直接跟动词原形,实际上是接省to的不定式。
I;^/?(n? a:h0You had better tell me the truth.
+T0p7K"ON^0I could not but (to) laugh at him. 商务英语词汇;kq!k(~XY;H|%b
Why not go and ask the teacher for help?商务英语词汇P]`zAJ
(5)在回答问句及其它形式的答语中,如有和上文重复的不定式时,在答语中只保留其不定式符号to,而把动词和其它部分省略。
Hpp8Yu0— Would you like to come to dinner tonight? 商务英语词汇l!P2_ rF4U
— I'd like to. But I'm too busy. ( 此句中的I'd like to 后省略了come to dinner tonight.) 商务英语词汇[#BE)Ps6[Am

商务英语词汇2IF/Y:axN

5) 介词(或介词短语)的省略 商务英语词汇;w(S9Av$UO}&B:wL/P

商务英语词汇@g1TJC

(1)动名词前面的介词in在一定条件下常被省略商务英语词汇hbW}B'g"@Z
We spent a large sum of money (in) building the mansion. 商务英语词汇+x.\;^e7lyM7w
而当spend money in doing sth. 结构用于被动语态时in不能省略
F,q W6SN.|7]0A large sum of money was spent in building the mansion.
w9y%gN,vtP.n7Z0(2)near或opposite作形容词表示“在…的附近”或“在…对面”时后接的介词to可省略
O)B@3x%_*WN.M*f0nb&l0It is near (to) the airport, opposite (to) the supermarket.
/s2y7h4@V#qU0(3)of +形容词+名词作补语表示大小、年龄、形状、颜色或价格时of常被省略商务英语词汇#z od9Vm'i
We are(of)the same age, I suppose.
?aQ'R~$]?#Y0(4)含有side, height, length, size, shape等惯用语前介词on有时可被省略商务英语词汇*?Je'Ki p6~
Try to keep your discourse(on)this side of 3000 words. 商务英语词汇/QFr?4O*P'{o u
(5)有些动词、名词、形容词习惯搭配介词短语, 在以what, when, how, whether, that出现的从句或不定式短语之前有时被省略介词短语as to.商务英语词汇x6z%H"tE
Be careful (as to) how you do that. 商务英语词汇(d&uNwA

P1ehQ$Zj{R0r6e*E06) 同源宾语的省略

| Z&`G8E0 商务英语词汇;gu\8_gB

同源宾语的修饰语是形容词最高级或含有最高级意义时可以省去该同源宾语 商务英语词汇_8y/P;{0bCi
During the football match, the fans all shouted their loudest (shout).
Zv*F&zb.O0She sang her sweetest (song). 商务英语词汇6xC l.T0K*y

SZ6Hy?4O7w0vK07) 英语中惯用的省略句型商务英语词汇3B QN6qo+l

f Wm]t:Y0即,What/How about后只跟名词、代词或动名词(短语),以及感叹句中的省略现象。
h"D)y;v.iq9m:`5oL0How about the two of us taking a walk down the garden?
%f"voH [4@0What a beautiful view (it is)!

.q+fH k.WXk0 商务英语词汇;r.gt7uc3GP)?

2. 并列句中的省略商务英语词汇;t }m3N]*kF+w

bwj^ _-?V01) 并列句的省略是最常见的,一般说来,在后一并列句中凡是与上文相同的成分通常都会被省略。
um.g Zt0To some smile is very easy, and to others (smile is) so hard. 商务英语词汇^3vb8cM
2) 简单句的并列结构中也常有省略的做法
_SIFd0We may go there by train or (by) air.商务英语词汇 x:\`@ Vd
3)并列平行结构有时会出现在状语从句中
p|J+X?(pFR:B0As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. 商务英语词汇#Z c@K+R!v7Eq
(此句中,前一个分句带一个As引导的状语从句,状语从句中 move away from 后为并列平行结构,their…,their…,their…在and后的分句中,the confidence后省略了is cut off.)

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f8HA+z*G03. 复合句中的省略

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O1KCST(i~ h01) 复合句中从句的句尾和主句相重复时从句的句尾部分可省掉商务英语词汇oL8L%~*T*Q:D)c1^ @9W
Mary is going to sweep the floor because Alice won't (sweep the floor).
4q4](CF3S)^g02)含有定语从句的复合句
"} {"Pt2p(n2atW![;l4m0(1)定语从句中可以省略作宾语的关系代词;非正式文体中,也可省略关系副词when或why.
j/nGrL B z%m"gR$t*Y0I shall never forget the day (when) I entered TV University. 商务英语词汇[R,n*_d Rk
I like the film for the very reason (why) you dislike it.
?*p]W2n0(2)关系代词as后面的主谓结构也可省略商务英语词汇bz{"~$CL
He gave the same answer as (he had given) before.
"w(gE x7M%dz4y03)含有宾语从句的复合句
%QQ CooY_ v_/u0(1)在两个并列的that从句如主动词及其宾语、表语、状语等都一样时可将第二个that从句的主动词及随带成份省略。商务英语词汇'n w@:q0q3UU
I guess Lisa will dance in the party but Jane won't (dance in the party).商务英语词汇fL'W5Ke t
(2)在两个并列的that从句如主语相同,而谓语不同,可把第二个that从句的连词和主语一起省略。商务英语词汇fv_X?k
Tell Peter that I'll call to see him and (that I 'll ) have talk with him.商务英语词汇T Fy PL#M)G(n0_)_
(3)在两个并列从句如连词不同而其它成份相同时,可省略第一分句和第二分句相同的部分,只把两个连词连接起来。商务英语词汇/Su-U&y7k#L/B n
Her parents don't know when (she was born) and where she was born.
V;UG.F x%cU,cG0(4)在以某些形容词或过去分词,如:sure, glad, certain, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied的词所引导的宾语从句中,连词that可省略。商务英语词汇c8E2k#w+Q/p}@
We aren’t sure which the best is.
|T*k'~I&]0I was very pleased my friend had passed the exam.
"o0Z-oQ!sA1Z*w0(5)在以which, when, where, how和why引导的宾语从句中,其谓语与主句谓语相同时省略全部谓语,有时甚至主语也可省略,只保留一个w h~的词。
1E0o&Q!A@(S3F0He can’t go to school, but I don’t know why (he can’t go to school).

)d9tFzK,m0 商务英语词汇N`sha]I

4)含有状语从句的复合句 商务英语词汇9K[X;rsF

商务英语词汇:V[4C;lDD[!Qb^

状语从句中的省略原则是,如主语与主句主语一致,或主语是it,可省略从句的连接词、主语和be助动词,只保留分词和其它成分,从而使语言更加简洁明了。
,M9lW7` N:xQQ1q0(1)时间状语从句中的省略
6f%um\1Db$c B ^0I favor English when (I was) a pupil.
.A8@%`+_v+u0(2)地点状语从句中的省略商务英语词汇h#q\-Z(Re
The river is clean where (it is) deep.
)zNt7xu` {E*i0y0(3)让步状语从句中的省略
%U-g4tT1p&~"L3Z#x0Although (she was) the youngest of the group, she won all the prizes.
.QRG-I5^'p H0(4)方式状语从句中的省略商务英语词汇avuTa ?$v+T
The baby closed his eyes as if ( he were ) to sleep.
%GRU#rdR J/A0(5)条件状语从句中的省略商务英语词汇]bDHPLYQ&v
She won’t come unless (she is) invited.商务英语词汇3r*i0pe q.nK
(6)原因状语从句中的省略
$l] AZ t'@-v5p0(If we were) Given more attention, the plants could have grown better.商务英语词汇[2l;d,N r4k@ p
(7)比较状语从句中的省略
k-U*j,P0l!S0You can play the game just as wonderfully as I (do). 商务英语词汇$yio@(b&]
在以than和as引导的比较结构的状语从句中,省略某些与主句相同的成分或在特定上下文中有某些不言而喻的成分,可省掉整个as/than从句。商务英语词汇5CWO)v!iW`\
The pianos in the other shop will be cheaper. (than those in this shop), but (they are) not as good (as those in this shop).
M1Wx"Cz@0(8)状语从句中并列结构的省略商务英语词汇&b5Sw"Z*MdQ$n`
在复合句中,如两个并列的状语从句只是从属连词不同,其它相同时,则可省略一个状语从句,而把两个从属连词连接起来。
-G c|^Md0They will be arriving either before (the film begins) or after the film begins. 商务英语词汇$b&A$W ZQNf
5)虚拟语气条件句中if的省略 .
A%^?Gb1lq*?M0与If引导的条件从句中含有were, had时,可将if省略, 并用倒装结构。
R3Qft}7Jf qm0Were I you , I wouldn’t go with him.商务英语词汇CWo?$Q

商务英语词汇^;jNy9Y'v/po l

三 结论

zH}]7u8ry4KI/}0

J.R/Dv f*E7X0“省略”不仅是一种以无为有的表达方法, 更是一种简便至极, 虽无胜有的修辞手段。 大文豪莎士比亚有句名言:Brevity is the soul of wit. 意为:“言以简洁为贵”。 尤其对学习语言并以此为乐的英语学员们来说甚有同感!“简洁”二字并非简洁,而真要做到“简”得恰到好处、“洁”得恰如其分,省略法的研究与掌握是势在必行且乐在其中的事。商务英语词汇o)z3[l6J.Bu

TAG: 省略 句子
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