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高中语法-直接引语与间接引语精讲

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商务英语词汇P|T$f z3kp3?

直接引语与间接引语专题讲座
OvJ^eEo#P0定义:
1wuql qT0直接引语:直接引用别人的原话,并在原话前后加引号。商务英语词汇#^.m ` u5}B
     例:He said:" It is too late."商务英语词汇pC%N@$|!y'p!E[;w
间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话,多数以宾语从句的形式构成。商务英语词汇RZ jEVe
     例:He said it was too late.商务英语词汇Y7u}w`
直接引语与间接引语相互转化时应注意的问题

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`)Z%K [^1k0第一:人称的变化。
5F:F:Wy?l(KR7x0主语为第一人称的直接引语,变间接引语时,人称要做相应调整。商务英语词汇{7Od4E[ c~&q
例如:
*n#U?#E-}$W0直接引语 She said:" I am hungry."商务英语词汇Y$y jK/V
间接引语 She said she was hungry.商务英语词汇 H0K1h^P-m mn n

%Lq/s[5KS Y0直接引语 Mum said to me:" You must clean your bedroom by yourself."商务英语词汇$`uf Uit)W#^
间接引语 Mum told me that I had to clean my bedroom by myself.商务英语词汇#yQDIx c;OsX7V

B,`)O X^ E8j0第二:时态变化
v [r |r#y,{Z X$W0直接引语变间接引语时,间接引语的时态要与主句的时态一致。其规律如下图。
4Qm)t(l4f*O0商务英语词汇(z V3[&?Nd
注意:商务英语词汇(V.ED3S d!`
1.直接引语为客观真理时,间接引语时态不变,仍用一般现在时。商务英语词汇R[9YD$v1mv u
例如:Teacher told us:" The moon moves round the earth."商务英语词汇9jhO S?4t"V
Teacher told us the moon moves round the earth.

h8UH&^@0 商务英语词汇 Q!AD"sZ/g:i6\j_

2.直接引语为一般过去时并且与具体时间状语连用时,间接引语仍用一般过去时。
g? qU.GX]0例如:She said:" I went to England in 1998."商务英语词汇9bgVAZX3k,z l
She said she went to England in 1998.商务英语词汇R3U&Qpf+TO;Z

L v;BMPwU03.主句为一般现在时或一般将来时的时候,间接引语时态不变。
3iRJx:o0He says:" I bought you a book yesterday."商务英语词汇s"Y zVR%V
He says that he bought me a book yesterday.商务英语词汇*E2c{vS

%Go gz^d~V|a0第三:指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化。
fhS`)vvx0商务英语词汇%Z5ed r"E KJ ?-A
第四:句式上的变化商务英语词汇hYS8NQ%p)z VNmi
1.陈述句变间接引语时,用that连接。
j/R1b @:A1UG0如:She said:" I am a girl."
J7oW6_|0She said that she was a girl. (that可以省略)

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s s4E3xe:AG_N02.一般疑问句,选择疑问句和反意疑问句变间接引语时,要用陈述语气,并要加连词if或whether。
^SoT#u0例如:She asked me:" Are you Mr. Li?"商务英语词汇 K7j)ja9e1r,X
She asked me if I was Mr. Li.

uOS"_jSn#mW*w0 商务英语词汇7uM7f.iG2Q"f8Mk

She asked us:" Do you want to go on a picnic?"
mp-RXa,?-J Bw8|0She asked us if we wanted to go on a picnic.

i8GM Vfo8p[0 商务英语词汇V#iCo6rp4y `F t

3.特殊疑问句变间接引语要用特殊疑问词引导。商务英语词汇'G)R7M[4T ~^6iW5H
例如:"How much have we spent on petrol this year," Susan asked her husband.商务英语词汇-X;s Ey_
Susan asked her husband how much they had spent on petrol that year.

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3xCG2~7\04.祈使句变间接引语,一改二变三加四去。
"D,N-~X)Vx0一改:said (to) 改为asked或told, ordered等商务英语词汇?i'|n$e!fi#Txw ^
二变:said to 的宾语或呼语变为asked等的宾语商务英语词汇 g HuJ1@7kK5[
三加:即在动词原形前加to,使成为动词不定式商务英语词汇:v\%Cw6Ak4A
四去:去掉please
b I%PW{!N5[w0例:He said to her:" Don't take the book away."商务英语词汇A(uV o(?9IA
He asked her not take the book away.

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Zc a%D z5B3`Br05.感叹句变为间接引语商务英语词汇%x*v/AI u.|
"What awful weather it is!" she said.
(@O ns[`0She complained about the awful weather.

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L9?,PH \Q0dE0"What a bright girl you are." He said to me.
4j}O.~$fH?0He praised me that I was a bright girl.

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